menu MENU
Zetian Mi
(734) 764-3963 2405 EECS1301 Beal AvenueAnn Arbor, MI 48109-2122


Research Interests

Semiconductor nanostructures, including quantum dots, nanowires, and two-dimensional atomic crystals

III-nitride materials and optoelectronic devices

Light-emitting diodes, lasers, and UV photonics

Quantum materials, and quantum photonics

Artificial photosynthesis, solar fuels, and clean energy

Selected Recent Publications


  1. Dong, W.J., Xiao, Y., Yang, K.R., Ye, Z., Zhou, P., Navid, I.A., Batista, V.S. and Mi, Z., 2023. Pt nanoclusters on GaN nanowires for solar-asssisted seawater hydrogen evolution. Nature Communications14(1), pp.1-10.
  2. Zhou, P., Navid, I.A., Ma, Y., Xiao, Y., Wang, P., Ye, Z., Zhou, B., Sun, K. and Mi, Z., 2023. Solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of more than 9% in photocatalytic water splitting. Nature613(7942), pp.66-70.


  1. Shin, W.J., Wang, P., Sun, Y., Paul, S., Liu, J., Kira, M., Soltani, M. and Mi, Z., 2022. Enhanced Pockels Effect in AlN Microring Resonator Modulators Based on AlGaN/AlN Multiple Quantum Wells. ACS Photonics.
  2. Mondal, S., Wang, D., Wang, P., Wu, Y., Hu, M., Xiao, Y., Mohanty, S., Ma, T., Ahmadi, E. and Mi, Z., 2022. Reconfigurable self-powered deep UV photodetectors based on ultrawide bandgap ferroelectric ScAlN.  APL Materials10(12), p.121101.
  3. Pandey, A., Min, J., Malhotra, Y., Reddeppa, M., Xiao, Y., Wu, Y. and Mi, Z., 2022. Strain-engineered N-polar InGaN nanowires: towards high-efficiency red LEDs on the micrometer scale. Photonics Research10(12), pp.2809-2815.
  4. Wu, Y., Xiao, Y., Navid, I., Sun, K., Malhotra, Y., Wang, P., Wang, D., Xu, Y., Pandey, A., Reddeppa, M. and Shin, W., 2022. InGaN micro-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si: achieving ultra-stable operation through polarization and strain engineering. Light: Science & Applications11(1), pp.1-9.
  5. Zhou, P., Navid, I.A., Xiao, Y., Ye, Z., Dong, W.J., Wang, P., Sun, K. and Mi, Z., 2022. Metal–Support Interaction-Promoted Photothermal Catalytic Methane Reforming into Liquid Fuels. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters13(34), pp.8122-8129.
  6. Wang, D., Wang, P., Mondal, S., Xiao, Y., Hu, M. and Mi, Z., 2022. Impact of dislocation density on the ferroelectric properties of ScAlN grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Applied Physics Letters121(4), p.042108.
  7. Wang, P., Wang, D., Mondal, S. and Mi, Z., 2022. Ferroelectric N-polar ScAlN/GaN heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Applied Physics Letters121(2), p.023501.
  8. Wang, P., Lee, W., Corbett, J. P., Koll, W. H., Vu, N. M., Laleyan, D. A., … & Mi, Z. (2022). Scalable Synthesis of Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride on Graphene with Giant Bandgap Renormalization. Advanced Materials, 2201387.
  9. Pandey, A., Malhotra, Y., Wang, P., Sun, K., Liu, X., & Mi, Z. (2022). N-polar InGaN/GaN nanowires: overcoming the efficiency cliff of red-emitting micro-LEDs. Photonics Research10(4), 1107-1116.
  10. Wang, Ping, Ding Wang, Shubham Mondal, Yuanpeng Wu, Tao Ma, and Zetian Mi. “Interfacial Modulated Lattice-Polarity-Controlled Epitaxy of III-Nitride Heterostructures on Si (111).” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces (2022).
  11. Wang, Ding, Ping Wang, Shubham Mondal, Subhajit Mohanty, Tao Ma, Elaheh Ahmadi, and Zetian Mi. “An Epitaxial Ferroelectric ScAlN/GaN Heterostructure Memory.” Advanced Electronic Materials: 2200005.
  12. Dong, W. J., Navid, I. A., Xiao, Y., Lee, T. H., Lim, J. W., Lee, D., … & Mi, Z. (2022). Bi catalysts supported on GaN nanowires toward efficient photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction. Journal of Materials Chemistry A.
  13. Xiao, Y., Vanka, S., Pham, T. A., Dong, W. J., Sun, Y., Liu, X., … & Mi, Z. (2022). Crystallographic Effects of GaN Nanostructures in Photoelectrochemical Reaction. Nano Letters.
  14. Dong, Wan Jae, Peng Zhou, Yixin Xiao, Ishtiaque Ahmed Navid, Jong-Lam Lee, and Zetian Mi. “Silver Halide Catalysts on GaN Nanowires/Si Heterojunction Photocathodes for CO2 Reduction to Syngas at High Current Density.” ACS Catalysis 12 (2022): 2671-2680.
  15. Liu, Xianhe, Yi Sun, Yakshita Malhotra, Ayush Pandey, Ping Wang, Yuanpeng Wu, Kai Sun, and Zetian Mi. “N-polar InGaN nanowires: breaking the efficiency bottleneck of nano and micro LEDs.” Photonics Research 10, no. 2 (2022): 587-593.
  16. Navid, Ishtiaque Ahmed, Ayush Pandey, Yin Min Goh, Jonathan Schwartz, Robert Hovden, and Zetian Mi. “GaN‐Based Deep‐Nano Structures: Break the Efficiency Bottleneck of Conventional Nanoscale Optoelectronics.” Advanced Optical Materials (2022): 2102263.
  17. Wang, Ping, Ding Wang, Yutong Bi, Boyu Wang, Jonathan Schwartz, Robert Hovden, and Zetian Mi. “Quaternary alloy ScAlGaN: A promising strategy to improve the quality of ScAlN.” Applied Physics Letters 120, no. 1 (2022): 012104.


  1. Liu, Xianhe, Yi Sun, Yakshita Malhotra, Yuanpeng Wu, and Zetian Mi. “Monolithic integration of multicolor InGaN LEDs with uniform luminescence emission.” Optics Express 29, no. 21 (2021): 32826-32832.
  2. Liu, Xianhe, Yi Sun, Yakshita Malhotra, Ayush Pandey, Yuanpeng Wu, Kai Sun, and Zetian Mi. “High efficiency InGaN nanowire tunnel junction green micro-LEDs.” Applied Physics Letters 119, no. 14 (2021): 141110.
  3. Wang, Ding, Ping Wang, Boyu Wang, and Zetian Mi. “Fully epitaxial ferroelectric ScGaN grown on GaN by molecular beam epitaxy.” Applied Physics Letters 119, no. 11 (2021): 111902.
  4. D. Wang, Liu, X., Kang, Y., Wang, X., Wu, Y., Fang, S., Yu, H., Memon, M.H., Zhang, H., Hu, W. . Z. Mi., L. Fu, H. Sun, and S. Long, 2021. Bidirectional photocurrent in p–n heterojunction nanowires. Nature Electronics4(9), pp.645-652.
  5. Wang, Ping, Ding Wang, Boyu Wang, Subhajit Mohanty, Sandra Diez, Yuanpeng Wu, Yi Sun, Elaheh Ahmadi, and Zetian Mi. “N-polar ScAlN and HEMTs grown by molecular beam epitaxy.” Applied Physics Letters 119, no. 8 (2021): 082101.
  6. Zeng, G., Pham, T.A., Vanka, S., Liu, G., Song, C., Cooper, J.K., Mi, Z., Ogitsu, T. and Toma, F.M., 2021. Development of a photoelectrochemically self-improving Si/GaN photocathode for efficient and durable H2 production. Nature Materials20(8), pp.1130-1135.
  7. Dong, Wan Jae, Ishtiaque Ahmed Navid, Yixin Xiao, Jin Wook Lim, Jong-Lam Lee, and Zetian Mi. “CuS-Decorated GaN Nanowires on Silicon Photocathodes for Converting CO2 Mixture Gas to HCOOH.” Journal of the American Chemical Society 143, no. 27 (2021): 10099-10107.
  8. Navid, Ishtiaque A., Srinivas Vanka, Rasha A. Awni, Yixin Xiao, Zhaoning Song, Yanfa Yan, and Zetian Mi. “On the design and performance of InGaN/Si double-junction photocathodes.” Applied Physics Letters 118, no. 24 (2021): 243906.
  9. Pandey, A., J. Gim, R. Hovden, and Z. Mi. “Electron overflow of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes.” Applied Physics Letters 118, no. 24 (2021): 241109.
  10. Wang, Ping, Ding Wang, Nguyen M. Vu, Tony Chiang, John T. Heron, and Zetian Mi. “Fully epitaxial ferroelectric ScAlN grown by molecular beam epitaxy.” Applied Physics Letters 118, no. 22 (2021): 223504.
  11. Shin, Walter, Yi Sun, Mohammad Soltani, and Zetian Mi. “Demonstration of green and UV wavelength high Q aluminum nitride on sapphire microring resonators integrated with microheaters.” Applied Physics Letters 118, no. 21 (2021): 211103.
  12. Wang, Ping, Boyu Wang, David Arto Laleyan, Ayush Pandey, Yuanpeng Wu, Yi Sun, Xianhe Liu, Zihao Deng, Emmanouil Kioupakis, and Zetian Mi. “Oxygen defect dominated photoluminescence emission of ScAlN grown by molecular beam epitaxy.” Applied Physics Letters 118, no. 3 (2021): 032102.

Previous publications-

  1. A Pandey, J Gim, R Hovden, Z Mi, An AlGaN tunnel junction light emitting diode operating at 255 nm, Applied Physics Letters 117 (24), 241101, 2020.
  2. P Wang, DA Laleyan, A Pandey, Y Sun, Z Mi, Molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of wurtzite ScxAl1−xN, Applied Physics Letters 116 (15), 151903, 2020. 
  3. P. Wang, A. Pandey, J. Gim, W. J. Shin, E. T. Reid, D. A. Laleyan, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, Z. Liu, Z. Zhong, R. Hovden, Z. Mi, Graphene-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of AlN for AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes, Applied Physics Letters 116 (17), 171905, 2020.
  4. B. Zhou, P. Ou, N. Pant, S. Cheng, S. Vanka, S. Chu, R. T. Rashid, G. Botton, J. Song, and Z. Mi, Highly efficient binary copper−iron catalyst for photoelectrochemical carbon dioxide reduction toward methane, PNAS, 117 (3) 1330-1338, 2020.
  5. Y. H. Ra, R. T. Rashid, X. H. Liu, S. Sadaf, K. Mashooq, and Z. Mi, An Electrically Pumped Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Green Laser, Science Advances vol. 6, eaav7523, 2020.
  6. Y. Wu, X. Liu, P. Wang, D. A. Laleyan, K. Sun, Y. Sun, C. Ahn, M. Kira, E. Kioupakis, and Z. Mi, Monolayer GaN excitonic deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes, Applied Physics Letters 116 (1), 013101, 2020.
  7. D. A. Laleyan, N. Fernández-Delgado, E. T. Reid, P. Wang, A. Pandey, G. A. Botton, Z. Mi, Strain-free ultrathin AlN epilayers grown directly on sapphire by high-temperature molecular beam epitaxy, Applied Physics Letters 116 (15), 152102, 2020.
  8. B. Shan, S. Vanka, T.-T. Li, L. Troian-Gautier, M. K. Brennaman, Z. Mi, and T. J. Meyer, “Binary molecular-semiconductor p–n junctions for photoelectrocatalytic CO2 reduction,” Nature Energy, vol. 4, 290, 2019.
  9. Y. Sun, W. Shin, D. A. Laleyan, P. Wang, A. Pandey, X. Liu, Y. Wu, M. Soltani, and Z. Mi, “Ultra-high Q Microring Resonators on Single Crystal Aluminum Nitride on Sapphire Platform,” Opt. Lett., 44, 5679, 2019.
  10. A. Pandey, X. Liu, Z. Deng, W. J. Shin, D. A. Laleyan, K. Mashooq, E. T. Reid, E. Kioupakis, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “Enhanced doping efficiency of ultrawide band gap semiconductors by metal-semiconductor junction assisted epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Mater., vol. 3, 053401, 2019.
  11. B Zhou, X Kong, S Vanka, S Cheng, N Pant, S Chu, P Ghamari, Y Wang, G. Botton, H. Cuo, Z. Mi, “A GaN: Sn nanoarchitecture integrated on a silicon platform for converting CO2 to HCOOH by photoelectrocatalysis,” Energy & Environmental Science 12 (9), 2842-2848, 2019.
  12. Mingxin Liu, Yichen Wang, Xianghua Kong, Roksana T Rashid, Sheng Chu, Chen-Chen Li, Zoë Hearne, Hong Guo, Zetian Mi, Chao-Jun Li, Direct catalytic methanol-to-ethanol photo-conversion via methyl carbene, Chem 5 (4), 858-867, 2019.
  13. D. A. Laleyan, K. Mengle, S. Zhao, Y. Wang, E. Kioupakis, Z. Mi, “Effect of growth temperature on the structural and optical properties of few-layer hexagonal boron nitride by molecular beam epitaxy,” Opt. Exp., vol. 26, 23031, 2018.
  14. S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “AlGaN Nanowires: Path to Electrically Injected Semiconductor Deep Ultraviolet Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 54, 1, 2018.
  15. B. Zhou, X. Kong, S. Vanka, S. Chu, P. Ghamari, Y. Wang, N. Pant, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Gallium nitride nanowire as a linker of molybdenum sulfides and silicon for photoelectrocatalytic water splitting,” Nature Commun., vol. 9, 3856, 2018.
  16. S. Vanka, E. Arca, S. Cheng, K. Sun, G. A. Botton, G. Teeter, and Z. Mi, “High Efficiency Si Photocathode Protected by Multifunctional GaN Nanostructures,” Nano Lett., vol. 18, 6530, 2018.
  17. X. Guan, F. A. Chowdhury, Y. Wang, N. Pant, S. Vanka, M. L. Trudeau, L. Guo, L. Vayssieres, and Z. Mi, “Making of an industry-friendly artificial photosynthesis device,” ACS Energy Lett., vol. 3, 2230, 2018.  
  18. F. A. Chowdhury, M. L. Trudeau, H. Guo and Z. Mi, “A Photochemical Diode Artificial Photosynthesis System for Unassisted High Efficiency Overall Pure Water Splitting,” Nature Communications, vol. 9, 1707, 2018.
  19. S. Chu, P. Ou, P. Ghamari, S. Vanka, B. Zhou, I. Shih, J. Song and Z. Mi, “Photoelectrochemical CO2 Reduction into Syngas with the Metal/Oxide Interface,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 140, 7869, 2018.
  20. L. Li, Y. Wang, S. Vanka, X. Mu, Z. Mi, and C.J. Li “Nitrogen photofixation over III‐nitride nanowires assisted by ruthenium clusters of low atomicity”, Angewandte Chemie, vol. 129, 8827, 2017.
  21. D. A. Laleyan, S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, H. N. Tran, H. B. Le, T. Szkopek, H. Guo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi “AlN/h-BN heterostructures for Mg dopant-free deep ultraviolet photonics”, Nano Lett., vol. 17, 3737, 2017.
  22. N. H. Tran, B. H. Le, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “On the mechanism of highly efficient p-type conduction of Mg-doped ultra-wide-bandgap AlN nanostructures”, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 110, 032102, 2017.
  23. Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-color single nanowire pixels for projection displays,” Nano Lett., vo. 16, 4608, 2016.
  24. S. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Wu, and Z. Mi, “An electrically pumped 239 nm AlGaN nanowire laser operating at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 109, 191106, 2016.
  25. M. G. Kibria, R. Qiao, W. Yang, I. Boukahil, X. Kong, F. A. Chowdhury, M. L. Trudeau, W. Ji, H. Guo, F. J. Himpsel, L. Vayssieres, and Z. Mi, “Atomic scale origin of long term stability and high performance of p-GaN nanowire-arrays for photocatalytic overall pure water splitting”, Adv. Mater., vol. 28, 8388-8397, 2016.
  26. B. Le, S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlled coalescence of AlGaN nanowire arrays: An architecture for dislocation-free planar ultraviolet photonic device applications”, Adv. Mater., vol. 28, 8446-8454, 2016.
  27. K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi“Ultralow threshold, electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nature Nanotech., vol. 10, 140, 2015.